LCA was conducted for five different case studies in detail: Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) system near Barcelona (Sant Vicenc dels Horts, ES) for groundwater recharge, MAR system at Dunea (NL) for drinking water production, Automatic Neural Net Control System (ANCS) for membrane plant for backwash water treatment at WAG (GER), powdered activated carbon adsorption with subsequent ultrafiltration (PAC+UF) pilot plant in Basel (CH), and ozonation of WWTP effluent at Neugut (CH). In addition, the application of bioassays for water quality monitoring has been analysed with qualitative environmental analysis due to lack of suitable input data for detailed analysis. For all case studies, selected environmental indicators were calculated describing additional efforts of water treatment (e.g. energy demand, greenhouse gase emissions) and improvements in water quality (e.g. eutrophication, ecotoxicity, human toxicity), also reflecting at the evaluation of enhanced removal of organic micropollutants with the selected processes. Input data for LCA was collected and validated in close cooperation with local partners and end-users of the technologies. Finally, key outcomes from LCA analysis have been formulated to define the unique selling propositions for the different technologies regarding their environmental profiles.
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