The dissemination activities of DEMEAU were planned in the beginning of the project and outlined in the dissemination strategy (von Toggenburg et al. 2013). After three years of project work, we have a look at the achievements of these dissemination activities.
Based on the results from the environmental LCA, the economic LCC, the enabling and constraining factors for a successful technology implementation and Unique Selling Propositions, recommendations for the actual implementation of the technologies studied in WA1-4 were developed. This goal builds upon a synthesis of the efforts from the other work packages in WA5 and is tightly linked to the WA1-4 of the DEMEAU project through case studies. Therefore, clear responsibilities within WA5 for the coordination with other work areas had been established from the onset of the DEMEAU project.
Nine micropollutant substances have been identified as high priority substances to be reported in all case studies based on their environmental relevance, coverage of chemical and physical properties, elimination rates by various technologies and existence of an analytical method to identify them. Characterization factors for the toxicity model USEtox® have been developed for all these substances based on the EPISuite v4.1 software for physico-chemical properties, data from project partners (EAWAG) for aquatic toxicity properties and a literature review for human toxic properties.
LCA was conducted for five different case studies in detail: Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) system near Barcelona (Sant Vicenc dels Horts, ES) for groundwater recharge, MAR system at Dunea (NL) for drinking water production, Automatic Neural Net Control System (ANCS) for membrane plant for backwash water treatment at WAG (GER), powdered activated carbon adsorption with subsequent ultrafiltration (PAC+UF) pilot plant in Basel (CH), and ozonation of WWTP effluent at Neugut (CH).
Following intensive discussions we have established a number of selection criteria to determine whether a bioassay is applicable for the assessment of the chemical water quality. A range of projects have already focused on the - largely overlapping – assay characteristics and selection criteria for bioassays to be used in environmental monitoring (Leusch et al. 2012; OECD 2012; Agency et al. 2012).
Based on the experience during demonstration of different technologies, a decision tool for measures and processes for energy efficient removal of emerging pollutants will be developed. Thereby one key aspect is the reliable prevention of toxic by-products formation from the source water matrix and the assessment of the potential for toxic transformation products formation from emerging pollutants.
After training of the neural net, ANCS was adjusted with the automatic functions and was used to control the pilot plant automatically. The results in terms of flux rate, recovery, chemical and energy demand will be compared to the respective results of the large technical scale backwash-water treatment plant operated without ANCS. This task showed successful modelling of start- and end permeabibity after/before backwashing and resulted in a cost reduction of 4 - 25 %